Akdeniz: Dünya devriminin yeni havzası!

The Mediterranean: new basin of world revolution!

البحر الأبيض: الحوض الجديد للثورة العالمية

مدیترانه: حوزه جدید انقلاب جهانی

Il Mediterraneo: nuovo bacino della rivoluzione mondiale!

Μεσόγειος: Νέα λεκάνη της παγκόσμιας επανάστασης!

Derya Sıpî: Deşta nû a şoreşa cihânê

Միջերկրական ծով: նոր ավազանում համաշխարհային հեղափոխության.

El Mediterráneo: Nueva cuenca de la revolución mundial!

La Méditerranée: nouveau bassin la révolution mondiale!

Mediterrâneo: bacia nova da revolução mundial!

Articles

Armağan Tulun, Sungur Savran
December 28, 2021

In 1991, however, upon the heels of the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of all the central and east European workers’ states, came the dissolution of the Soviet state, still the most advanced and representative of the family. This was followed by the more gradual and controlled restoration of capitalism in the Asian giants of China and Vietnam. Thus the experience of socialist construction of the 20th century, which set the tone for the entire world scene, collapsed like a house of cards.

Devrimci Marksizm
December 27, 2021

Thirty years ago, on 26 December to be exact, the USSR was declared dissolved by its constituent nations, the republics that formed the Soyuz. This was the pacific counter revolution that then started a chain reaction of radical transmutation, leading to the unwinding of all the characteristics that made it possible to attribute to the Soviet Union and hence to its constituent republics the character of a workers’ state, albeit under the distortions and convolutions of a heavy-handed bureaucratic degeneration.

Sungur Savran
December 26, 2021

In the process I will defend the idea that the USSR as a state form constituted a revolutionary rupture with respect to the state form of the nation-state in the modern era. It is the first state in the modern era, and the only one so far, that does not bear the name of a nation or at least a geographic location that later in the historical process became the name of a nation. Of the second type, the most salient instance is the United States of America. The Soviet state had no such national belonging in its outward appearance, which makes it exceptional in the modern nation-state system.

Savas Michael Matsas
December 26, 2021

The vitality and resilience showed by the first Workers’ State, born by the October 1917 socialist revolution, was the first confirmation in practice of the historical legitimacy of the victorious socialist revolution, considered then (but also even now) by many in the Left and by everybody in the Right, as an aberration of History, or as a premature miscarriage.

OKP
December 25, 2021

In December 1991, the largest state on the planet, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the first ever socialist state of workers and peasants, disappeared from the political map of the world. In the context of the general crisis of Gorbachev’s “perestroika” policy, few people paid attention to the blatant violation of all conceivable and inconceivable constitutional procedures during the “dissolution” of the united socialist homeland.

Iosif Abramson
December 25, 2021

Let us summarize the results of the review of the greatest historical breakthroughs, unforgettable feats accomplished in the twentieth century by the communists and working people of the USSR and, following their example, after the Second World War, of many other countries, an overview of the enormous achievements in the initiated movement towards the transition to the highest phase of communism and -along the way- considerable mistakes, theoretical and practical perversions, made along the way. The negative factors, alas, turned out to be stronger and interrupted the development of most socialist projects. The systematization of the causes of failure will be the natural conclusion of the essay of our dramatic 74-year history.

Russian Party of Communists
December 23, 2021

We are publishing here issue No.6 for the year 2021 (Issue No. 144) of Communist of Leningrad, the bi-monthly publication of the Russian Party of Communists in Leningrad (St. Petersburg).

James Cooper
December 18, 2021

October 2021 witnessed a huge upsurge in strikes across a myriad of sectors in the USA, from auto workers of John Deere to food-processing workers of Nabisco. This unique month of strikes has already been dubbed “Strike-tober” by many American workers and socialists, and its impacts have already spilled over to the months that followed.

However, a long, relatively smaller strike had begun in mid-September, and unfortunately did not get the coverage it deserved from the mainstream media or most of the socialist press. The engineers of the private hospital chain Kaiser Permanente in Oakland, California have been striking for better pensions and wage increases adjusted to inflation. At the time of writing (December 10, 2021), the strike has entered its 84th day, thus becoming the longest strike the Bay Area has ever seen. It is seconded only by the 1934 San Francisco General Strike, which had lasted for 83 days.

Sungur Savran
December 12, 2021

An abuse of such proportions of a religious belief for purely material interests ought to be hard to find in history. The declaration by Tayyip Erdoğan, the principal architect of the free-fall of the Turkish Lira, of interest as nass (textually verified principle of Islam) to defend himself is nothing but a desperate final attempt to hide the material reality from the eyes of the people. To understand this, we need to go back in time and grasp the roots of the crisis currently underway.

The AKP government had a lucky streak in the ec

DIP
December 9, 2021

The 6th Congress of the Revolutionary Workers Party (DIP) of Turkey greets the century-old, just and legitimate fight of the Palestinian people against Zionism and imperialism, and states that the party's support for this struggle will continue uninterruptedly.

Throughout the entire history of its struggle, the Palestinian people have fought against almost all great powers, so to speak. Palestine, which fed the Ottoman court, pashas, ​​tax farmers and their local collaborators until the 20th century, was occupied by the imperialists after the First World War, and its territory was made a present to the Zionists by them. In 1948, the direct colonialism of imperialism was replaced by the Zionist occupation, and a racist, fundamentalist, apartheid-type settler-colonial state called Israel subjected the Palestinians to a systematic ethnic cleansing on the one hand, and, on the other, became the bridgehead of the imperialists, especially of the USA, in the region.

DIP
December 9, 2021

Le 6e Congrès du Parti révolutionnaire des travailleurs salue la résistance juste et légitime du peuple palestinien contre le sionisme et l'impérialisme depuis près d'un siècle et affirme que le soutien du parti à cette lutte se poursuivra sans cesse.

Tout au long de l'histoire de sa lutte, le peuple palestinien s'est battu contre vents et marées. La Palestine, qui alimentait la cour ottomane, les pachas, les fermiers fiscaux et leurs collaborateurs locaux jusqu'au 20ème siècle, a été occupée par les impérialistes après la Première Guerre mondiale, et son territoire a été donné aux sionistes par eux. En 1948, le colonialisme direct de l'impérialisme a été remplacé par l'occupation sioniste, et un État colonial raciste, fondamentaliste, colonisateur de type apartheid appelé Israël a soumis les Palestiniens à un nettoyage ethnique systématique. Le même Israël est devenu la tête de pont des impérialistes, en particulier des États-Unis, dans la région.

DIP
December 9, 2021

El VI Congreso del Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores (DIP) de Turquía saluda la lucha centenaria, justa y legítima del pueblo palestino contra el sionismo y el imperialismo, y afirma que el apoyo del partido a esta lucha continuará ininterrumpidamente.

A lo largo de toda la historia de su lucha, el pueblo palestino ha luchado contra casi todas las gran potencias, por así decirlo. Palestina, que alimentó a la corte otomana, pachás, recaudadores de impuestos y sus colaboradores locales hasta el siglo XX, fue ocupada por los imperialistas después de la Primera Guerra Mundial, y su territorio fue un regalo para los sionistas. En 1948, el colonialismo directo del imperialismo fue sustituido por la ocupación sionista, y un estado de colonos de tipo apartheid, racista y fundamentalista llamado Israel sometió a los palestinos a una limpieza étnica sistemática por un lado y, por otro, se convirtió en la cabeza de puente de los imperialistas, especialmente de Estados Unidos, en la región.

DIP
December 9, 2021

Georges Abdallah’s struggle is our struggle. His enemies are our enemies.
Free Georges Abdallah now!

DIP
December 8, 2021

La lutte de Georges Ibrahim Abdallah est notre lutte. Ses ennemis sont nos ennemis.
Liberté immédiate à Georges Ibrahim Abdallah !

Renaissance Ouvrière Révolutionnaire
November 30, 2021

Macron, et avec lui toute la bourgeoisie nationale, impose dans les DOM-TOM, en Guadeloupe et en Martinique, en Guyane, en Polynésie et en Nouvelle Calédonie,… un ordre colonial très discriminant pour les classes populaires de ces régions. Contre ce colonialisme et le terrorisme policier, contre les discriminations, contre les bas salaires (plus bas qu’en métropole) et les prix plus élevés, contre les mensonges et les crimes d’État (scandale du Chlordécone), les populations résistent. Alors Macron et la bourgeoisie envoie des forces de répression supplémentaires : le GIGN et le RAID, (+2 500 hommes), des blindés, du matériel militaire.

Christian Rakovsky International Sociaiist Center-RedMed
November 4, 2021

Le renversement du Conseil de souveraineté de transition et la destitution du gouvernement de transition au Soudan n'est pas simplement un coup d'État militaire, comme le réitère la « communauté internationale » des impérialistes et les médias occidentaux, mais une contre-révolution. Ayant commencé en décembre 2018, la révolution soudanaise a mis fin à 30 ans de dictature d'Omar el-Béchir et a fait jeter le dictateur lui-même en prison en avril 2019, mais a ensuite poursuivi le sit-in devant le Commandement général des forces armées pendant deux mois. Après le massacre du 3 juin 2019, au cours duquel plus d'une centaine de martyrs sont tombés, le peuple héroïque du Soudan s'est de nouveau soulevé le 30 juin. Le Conseil militaire de transition, qui avait pris le relais après la chute d'el-Béchir, a dû céder au pouvoir des masses révolutionnaires, mais a manœuvré pour mettre en place un Conseil de souveraineté de transition pour partager le pouvoir avec les représentants de la direction de la révolution, qui était à l'époque entre les mains des Forces pour la liberté et le changement et à sa tête l'Association des professionnels soudanais.

Christian Rakovsky International Sociaiist Center-RedMed
November 4, 2021

Sudan'da Geçiş Dönemi Egemenlik Konseyi'nin devrilmesi ve geçiş hükümetinin görevden alınması, emperyalistlerin “uluslararası toplumunun” ve Batı medyasının ısrarla öne sürdüğü gibi basit bir askeri darbe değil, bir karşı devrimdir. Aralık 2018'de başlayan Sudan devrimi, Ömer El Beşir'in 30 yıllık diktatörlüğüne son verdi ve Nisan 2019'da diktatörü hapse attı, ama ardından silahlı kuvvetlerin Genelkurmayı önünde 2 ay boyunca oturma eylemini sürdürdü. Yüzden fazla kişinin şehit düştüğü 3 Haziran 2019 katliamının ardından, Sudan'ın kahraman halkı 30 Haziran'da yeniden ayağa kalktı. El Beşir'in düşmesinden sonra görevi devralan Geçiş Dönemi Askeri Konseyi, devrimci kitlelerin gücüne teslim olmak zorunda kaldı, ancak iktidarı devrim liderliğinin temsilcileriyle paylaşmak için bir Geçiş Dönemi Egemenlik Konseyi kurma manevrası yaptı. O dönemde devrimin liderliği, başında Sudan Meslekler Birliği bulunan Özgürlük ve Değişim Güçleri'nin elindeydi.

Christian Rakovsky International Sociaiist Center-RedMed
November 3, 2021

The overthrow of the Transitional Sovereignty Council and the dismissal of the transitional government in Sudan is not simply a military coup, as the “international community” of imperialists and the Western media have been hammering, but a counter-revolution. Having started in December 2018, the Sudanese revolution put an end to the 30-year dictatorship of Omar al Bashir and had the dictator himself thrown into prison in April 2019, but then went on to continue the sit-in in front of the General Command of the armed forces for two months. After the massacre of 3 June 2019, when over one hundred martyrs fell, the heroic people of Sudan rose again on 30 June. The Transitional Military Council, which had taken over after the fall of al Bashir had to give in to the power of the revolutionary masses, but manoeuvered to set up a Transitional Sovereignty Council to share power with the representatives of the leadership of the revolution, which at that time was in the hands of the Forces for Freedom and Change and at its head the Sudan Professionals Association.

Sungur Savran
October 30, 2021

Revolutions are those moments in history when treading the middle ground is the most suicidal road. The experience of the Sudanese revolution has shown this much more clearly than many other revolutions. The Sudanese Professionals Association, which fought the forces of repression courageously until July 2019, suddenly yielded in front of the military and hoped that a moderate line would bring them and their revolution good. They found out, however, to their great chagrin, that there is no way to reconcile revolution and counter revolution. Fortunately, the revolution came into its own in bewildering speed. To squander this second chance by trying to rehash the road that has been tried and failed would be folly. The Sudanese revolution must go to the very end if it is not to suffer a catastrophic defeat the next time around. Only those who have nothing to lose will go to the end. Not the better-off petty-bourgeoisie represented by the Sudanese Professional Associations or the Forces for Freedom and Change, but the Resistance Committees that have sprung from the bosom of the poor working-class neighbourhoods and fight the police and the army no matter what happens. There is...

Russian Party of Communists
October 29, 2021

We are publishing here issue No.5 for the year 2021 (Issue No. 143) of Communist of Leningrad, the bi-monthly publication of the Russian Party of Communists in Leningrad (St. Petersburg).

Association Soviet Union
October 27, 2021

We are proud to present to our readers Issue No. 3 (10) for 2021 of Советское Возрождение. Бюллетень Ассоциации «Советский Союз» or in English Soviet Renaissance. Bulletin of the Association “Soviet Union”.

EEK
October 26, 2021

 

 

Statement by the EEK (Workers Revolutionary Party of Greece)

 A 18 years old young Roma has been murdered by Greek Police in Perama, Piraeus.

– the Mitsotakis right wing government covers up and protect the killers

 

The murder of the young Roma was committed by 7 police officers of the special DIAS force, well known for its brutality.

Late in the night of Friday, October 22, the DIAS unit, after a long pursuit of three minors Roma, 15-18 years old, who apparently they had stolen a car, in the area of Renti, trapped then in Perama and opened massive fire with their guns. One young Roma, 18 years old, was killed on the spot. Another, 16 years old was seriously wounded by three bullets in the belly, while a third, 15 years old, escaped.

Sungur Savran
October 23, 2021

Disciplined, fed with the lowliest ideological garbage, entranced by the feeling of superiority that derives from the erstwhile colonial feats of European civilisation and of their own country, full of rage against the immigrant and the refugee, who, they believe, has robbed them of their job, housing, educational and healthcare services, a crowd full of missionary zeal. The only missing thing is their militia, their paramilitary forces, their bands of thugs. But this is precisely why we do not label them as fascists, but proto-fascists. That they can overcome this lacuna in the wink of an eye has been demonstrated in Charlottesville, Virginia in the events of summer 2017 or in the German cities of Chemnitz and Köthen last autumn or in the chain of events in which black immigrant farm workers were attacked (and occasionally killed) in Italy after Salvini came to power in a coalition government last year.

Ege Latifcan
September 29, 2021

The Wednesday of September 8 witnessed the fascist arson of the Communist Party of India-Marxist (CPI-M) offices and various opposition media institutions by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) goons in the Indian state of Tripura. An attack like this, which resulted in massive material damage and injured tens of people including party members and journalists, is not the first of its kind in recent history.

August 19, 2021

We are publishing here issue No.4 for the year 2021 (Issue No. 142) of Communist of Leningrad, the bi-monthly publication of the Russian Party of Communists in Leningrad (St. Petersburg).

Sungur Savran
August 7, 2021

Marx’s reference to Hegel has been proven right once more: every historically significant event takes place twice – first as tragedy, then as farce! The Egyptian Revolution had ended in tragedy. It seems like the imperialist coup d’Etat in Tunisia will look like a caricature of its Egyptian counterpart in 2013.

Sungur Savran
August 7, 2021

Marx’ın Hegel’e atıfla söylediği söz yine haklı çıktı: Tarihte her büyük olay iki kere gerçekleşiyor. İlkinde trajedi olarak, ikincisinde komedi! Mısır devrimi bir trajedi ile sona ermişti. Öyle görünüyor ki, Tunus’taki emperyalizm darbesi onun bir karikatürü olacak.

Behnaz Tebrizi
August 5, 2021

Iran has rejuvenated with demonstrations and strikes. The state of the Islamic Republic of Iran reacted with violence as expected. Yet the masses have already begun calling for the unity of all peoples in Iran. We are relaying the events from the pen of an Iranian comrade.

Behnaz Tebrizi
August 5, 2021

İran yeniden gösteri ve grevlerle canlanmış bulunuyor. Tabii İran İslam Cumhuriyeti devletinin tepkisi her zamanki gibi şiddet dolu. Ama kitleler İran’ın bütün halklarını birleşmeye çağıran sloganlar atmaya bile başladılar. Olayları İranlı bir yoldaşımızın kaleminden aktarıyoruz.

DIP
July 30, 2021

События, произошедшие на Кубе в воскресенье, 11 июля 2021 года, к настоящему времени знакомы всем во всем мире и не нуждаются в повторении. Почти беспрецедентная волна протестов вспыхнула во многих городах по всей стране, включающая три различных набора требований: требования, связанные с ужасным экономическим кризисом и чрезвычайной ситуацией в области здравоохранения, которые захватили страну; требования свободы выражения мнений, собраний, ассоциаций и т.д.; требования свергнуть то, что некоторые из демонстрантов назвали “диктатурой”. Это последнее требование было дополнено лозунгом “patriayvida” (родина и жизнь), который был разработан в качестве альтернативы знаменитому лозунгу кубинской революции “patriaomuerte” (родина или смерть)

Comunistascuba.org
July 24, 2021

Έξι ημέρες μετά τα γεγονότα και μετά από ενδελεχή ανάλυση, η συλλογικότητα Comunistas ανακοίνωσε την επίσημη θέση της σχετικά με τις διαδηλώσεις που έλαβαν χώρα στην Κούβα την περασμένη Κυριακή 11 Ιουλίου ( Acerca de las protestas en Cuba del 11 de julio ).

DIP
July 23, 2021

Τα γεγονότα που συνέβησαν στην Κούβα την Κυριακή 11 Ιουλίου 2021, είναι πλέον γνωστά σε όλους σε όλο τον κόσμο και δεν χρειάζεται να τα επαναλάβουμε. Ένα σχεδόν άνευ προηγουμένου κύμα διαμαρτυριών ξέσπασε σε πολλές πόλεις σε ολόκληρη τη χώρα με τρεις διαφορετικές κατηγορίες αιτημάτων: αιτήματα που σχετίζονται με την τρομερή οικονομική κρίση και την κατάσταση έκτακτης ανάγκης στην υγεία που στραγγαλίζει τη χώρα˙ αιτήματα για ελευθερία έκφρασης, συνάθροισης, συνδικαλισμού κ.λπ.˙ αιτήματα ανατροπής αυτού που ορισμένοι από τους διαδηλωτές ονόμασαν «δικτατορία». Αυτό το τελευταίο αίτημα συμπληρώθηκε από το σύνθημα “patriayvida” (πατρίδα και ζωή), που σχεδιάστηκε ως εναλλακτική στο περίφημο σύνθημα της κουβανικής επανάστασης “patriaomuerte” (πατρίδα ή θάνατος).

DIP
July 21, 2021

وقايعي كه رو يكشنبه ١١ ژوئيه ٢٠٢١ ( مصادف با ٢٠ تير ١٤٠٠) در كوبا رخ داد ،كمابيش به گوش جهانيان رسيده است و در اينجا نيازي به تكرار آنها نيست. در بسياري از شهرهاي كوبا موجي از اعتراضات شروع شده است كه تقریبا تا کنون در اين كشور بي سابقه بوده است. معترضان خواستار سه دسته از مطالبات متمايز بودند:

DIP
July 19, 2021

Esta declaración del DIP sobre los acontecimientos en Cuba fue publicado en inglés y en turco jueves, el 15 de julio 2021. Debido al tiempo necesario por la traducción podemos publicarlo en español solo hoy.

Los hechos que ocurrieron en Cuba el domingo 11 de julio de 2021 ya son familiares para todos en todo el mundo y no es necesario repetirlos. Una ola de protestas casi sin precedentes estalló en muchas ciudades de todo el país que involucró tres conjuntos distintos de demandas: demandas relacionadas con la terrible crisis económica y emergencia de salud que han tomado al país en sus garras; demandas de libertad de expresión, asamblea, asociación, etc .; demandas para derrocar lo que algunos de los manifestantes llamaron la “dictadura”. Esta última demanda se complementó con el lema “patria y vida”, que fue diseñado como una alternativa al famoso lema de la revolución cubana “patria o muerte”.

Comunistascuba.org
July 19, 2021

Küba’daki 11 Temmuz protestoları ile ilgili üç ayrı niteleme yapılmış durumda. Hükümet bunların karşı devrimciler ve komünistler arasındaki bir çatışma olduğunu iddia ediyor; burjuva basın ezilenlerin diktatörlüğe karşı başkaldırısı olarak anlatıyor; bazı başkaları ise bunun yozlaşmış bürokrasiye karşı devrimci işçi sınıfının ayaklanması olduğunu savunuyor.
Bunların hiçbirisi protestoların doğasını anlamak için faydalı değil.

Comunistascuba.org
July 17, 2021

This is the original English translation of the analysis put forward by the comrades of the blog comunistascuba.org of the events of last Sunday, 11 July 2021. It is a very sensitive analysis of the different aspects of the events and provides the reader with a complex picture which cannot be reduced to simplistic ready-made formulae. It is entirely in conformity with the statement of the DIP put forth earlier. We recommend it heartily to our readers.

Comunistascuba.org
July 17, 2021

A seis días de los acontecimientos y tras un profundo análisis, Comunistas da a conocer su posición oficial acerca de las protestas que tuvieron lugar en Cuba el pasado domingo, 11 de julio.
De manera casi simultánea y con mayor o menor intensidad, el domingo 11 de julio Cuba vivió una serie de estallidos sociales que abarcaron al menos a 6 de las 14 provincias que conforman el país. En los 62 años transcurridos desde el triunfo de la Revolución dirigida por el comandante Fidel Castro, Cuba no había enfrentado una situación como ésta.

Nima Sabouri
July 16, 2021

In diesen Tagen sind ein großer Teil der Leih- und Werkvertragsarbeiter*innen (ab jetzt LWA) der iranischen Öl- und Gasindustrie im Streik. Die landesweiten Streiks wurden vor 16 Tagen (19. Juni) begonnen und jetzt sind mehr als 40 tausend LWA in mehr als 80 Industrieanlagen für Öl und Gas im Streik 1 (Siehe die Forderungen der LWA im 1. Anhang). Denjenigen, die die Nachrichten über weltweite Arbeitskämpfe folgen, ist schon bewusst, dass im Iran zumindest seit zehn Jahren tägliche Proteste und Streiks der Arbeiter*innen zu „normalen“ Ereignissen des Tages gehören. Die Verschärfung des Neoliberalismus2 wurde mit der strukturellen Ineffizienz und Korruption des Staats, den massiven Kosten der steigenden Militarisierung sowie den internationalen Wirtschaftssanktionen kombiniert, um zusammen zu einer tiefgehenden Krise zu führen.

Nima Sabouri
July 16, 2021

این روزها بخش بزرگی از کارگران صنعت نفت و گاز ایران در اعتصاب‌اند. ۱۶ روز از شروع این اعتصابات سراسری (۱۹ ژوئن) گذشته است و اکنون بیش از چهل‌هزار کارگر پیمانی در حدود ۸۰ واحد صنعتی نفت‌وگاز در اعتصاب به‌سر می‌برند2 (نگاه کنید به مطالبات این کارگران در پیوست ۱). کسانی که اخبار مبارزات کارگری در سطح جهان را دنبال می‌کنند می‌دانند که دست‌کم طی ده سال گذشته برپایی اعتراض و اعتصابِ کارگری در ایران رویدادی «عادی» و روزمره بوده است. پیشروی عنان‌گسیخته‌ی نولیبرالیسم3 در ایران در ترکیب با ناکارآمدی و فساد ساختاریِ دولت، هزینه‌های سنگین بسط نظامی‌گری و فشار تحریم‌های بین‌المللی به یک بحران اقتصادی تمام‌عیار منجر شده است.

DIP
July 15, 2021

Küba’da 11 Temmuz 2021’de cereyan eden olaylar artık herkes tarafından bilinmektedir ve tekrarlanmasına gerek yoktur. Ülke genelinde çok sayıda şehirde daha önce eşi hemen hemen görülmemiş biçimde patlak veren protesto dalgalarının, her biri ayrı düşünülmesi gereken üç dizi talebi vardı: yaşanan korkunç ekonomik kriz ve sağlık sisteminin içinde bulunduğu acil durum ile ilgili talepler; ifade, gösteri ve örgütlenme özgürlükleri ile ilgili talepler; bazı protestocuların “diktatörlük” olarak tanımladığı sistemin alaşağı edilmesine yönelik olanlar. Bu son talebe, Küba devriminin meşhur “ya vatan ya ölüm!” sloganına alternatif olarak tasarlanan, “hem vatan hem yaşam!” sloganları da eşlik etmekteydi.

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